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In recent works on learning representations for graph structures, methods have been proposed both for the representation of nodes and edges for large graphs, and for representation of graphs as a whole. This paper considers the popular graph2vec approach, which shows quite good results for ordinary graphs. In the field of natural language processing, however, a graph structure called a dependency tree is often used to express the connections between words in a sentence. We show that the graph2vec approach applied to dependency trees is unsatisfactory, which is due to the WL Kernel. In this paper, an adaptation of this kernel for dependency trees has been proposed, as well as 3 other types of kernels that take into account the specific features of dependency trees. This new vector representation can be used in NLP tasks where it is important to model syntax (e.g. authorship attribution, intention labeling, targeted sentiment analysis etc.). Universal Dependencies treebanks were clustered to show the consistency and validity of the proposed tree representation methods.
In this paper, a deep learning method study is conducted to solve a new multiclass text classification problem, identifying user interests by text messages. We used an original dataset of almost 90 thousand forum text messages, labeled for ten interests. We experimented with different modern neural network architectures: recurrent and convolutional, as well as simpler feedforward networks. Classification accuracy was evaluated for different architectures, text representations, and sets of miscellaneous parameters.
Non-profit organizations deliver a wide range of meaningful resources to communities in such diverse areas as education, arts, culture, medicine, social service and others. However, as compared to the private sector, their funding potential is much more limited. Increasing social and economic impact of the non-profit sector is a reason why there is a need in persistent efforts to enhance these opportunities. State contracts have a good potential to be regarded as one of the most essential sources of funding for non-profit organizations in the social sphere. Recently passed laws ensure substantial benefits for socially oriented non-profit organizations when participating in public procurement. Nevertheless, despite existence of norms allowing socially oriented NPOs to get preferences in tenders, presence of the non-profit sector in Russian public procurement market is still insignificant. The study seeks to analyze peculiarities of Russian public procurement legislation. Another purpose of the study is to investigate barriers to functioning of Russian NPOs in the public procurement market. The major question of the study to be asked is the following: why did the state order fail to become one of the drivers for the development of the non-profit sector in Russia? First, we consider the functioning mechanisms of socially oriented NPOs in the public procurement market. Then, we analyze the results of the expert interview, which let us identify the following barriers limiting participation of NPOs in public procurement: economic, financial, social and organizational barrier. Finally, we make a conclusion that for the majority of non-profit organizations state order is an optional source of funding in view of the identified barriers, and make recommendations on attracting socially oriented NPOs in the field of public procurement. The study is relevant for the government and public authorities, since it can serve as a starting point for improving the mechanisms of attracting the non-profit sector in the sphere of public procurement.
The given research is devoted to the acute issue of efficiency of valuable assets positioning carried out by commercial banks. The paper is aimed at examining factors which affect the efficiency of securities placement by commercial banks, as well as an econometric analysis based on the least squares method of the significance of the selected factors and their impact on the efficiency indicator. While researching this issue the phenomenon of adaptability, which means the higher the price set is in comparison with the medium price scale the higher the underpricing at setting with corresponding other equal terms, was singled out The methods of critical literature review, statistical analysis, and econometric model creation have been used to justify it. Moreover, the research resulted in model creation which characterizes the state of a definite commercial bank to be ready for emission of assets by means of initial public offering.
Prevalence of oral diseases among children is an urgent problem that poses a threat to the health of the growing population in Russia. Dental pathology among children with disabilities has specific characteristics regarding its development, prevalence and intensity of the lesion. Statistically, dental morbidity of children with disabilities is much higher than in somatically healthy. This is due to a number of factors: a slowdown in the perception rate, underdevelopment of the cognitive sphere, violation of behavioral reactions and, as a consequence, inadequate compliance with necessary hygienic procedures. The authors consider that the major etiological factor resulting in the development of diseases of oral mucosa and periodontal condition in patients with neuropsychiatric pathology is absence or poor hygienic care of the oral cavity. The aim of the study is to assess the dental status of children with disabilities and autism spectrum disorders aged 3 – 8 years old. To determine this status, the method of defining and calculating indices reflecting the state of oral tissues was employed. The following indexes were used in the study: Fedorov-Volodkina hygienic index; simplified index of oral hygiene (OHI-S/GAMES-Y),; papillary-marginal-alveolar index (PMA); Index of tooth decay kp, KPU+kp. Dental examination revealed a high prevalence of dental diseases in children with ASD and cerebral palsy; in particular, multiple lesions of hard tissues of the teeth, periodontal inflammation were identified. The findings of the study showed that caries in children with limited abilities is mainly due to their low motivation to develop a habit of individual manual teeth brushing ritual.
This paper is aimed at evaluating the performance of existing models of morphemic analysis for Russian based on convolutional neural networks. The models were trained on a relatively small amount of annotated training data (38,368 words). We tuned the hyperparameters to accommodate the harder task setting, which helped improve the accuracy of the model. In addition to testing 15 different configurations on the available test set, a new sample of 800 words containing roots that are missing in the training sample (e.g. neologisms and recent loan words) was manually created and annotated for morphemic structure (the new dataset is made available to the community). The effectiveness of the models was evaluated on this sample, and it turned out that the performance of the CNN models was much worse on this set (an almost 30% drop in word accuracy). We performed a classification of errors made by the best model both on the standard test set and the new one.
The study looks into the problem of student–faculty communication. It addresses the issue of claimed scarcity of such interaction that exists despite the recognized benefits it can bring to students and instructors. It is suggested that examination and comparison of the participants’ interest and actual engagement in out-of-class communication (OCC) may shed light on this. Two populations from a university in Russia: 148 students and 35 instructors, were analyzed to measure their overall interest and engagement in OCC. The paper also addressed the question whether the studied populations are interested and engage in the same types of OCC. The results demonstrate that the reported overall interest in OCC was higher than the actual engagement in it among both groups of the respondents. Besides, students and faculty chose different types of OCC as most interest evincing and most frequently practiced. The research outcomes may help the parties concerned (scholars, teaching staff, educational managers and students) enhance understanding of the nature of OCC and its specifics and consider ways of harmonizing it in the best interests of all stakeholders.
Family and preschool institutions are the most inﬂuential environments for education and development. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the prospects and drawbacks of early childhood development in the interaction of preschool and family education in Russia. The participants were 79 preschool teachers and 327 parents of children who attend kindergartens. Findings show that the most convenient forms of family– preschool interaction are group lessons, tours and group celebrations.Employees of preschool institutions are the least interested in the utilisation of information and commutation technologies. Commonly, the staﬀ may have children aged 3–5 listening to music, playing board games, reading books, modelling, making applique, drawing and performing small routine tasks (collecting toys and dishes, watering the ﬂowers). In contrast to the institute of family education, preschool
education draws more attention to the child development. Findings demonstrate that unlike educators, parents endorse the use of digital technologies but 74.7% of them use technologies for leisure applications, rather than for educational and developmental purposes.
The mentioned development methods are applied to reach child development by 28% of parents and 43.65% of educators. The ﬁndings may be applied to facilitate communication between parents and preschool teachers.
Recent Applications of Financial Risk Modelling and Portfolio Management is a pivotal reference source that provides vital research on the use of modern data analysis as well as quantitative methods for developing successful portfolio and risk management techniques. While highlighting topics such as credit scoring, investment strategies, and budgeting, this publication explores diverse models for achieving investment goals as well as improving upon traditional financial modelling methods. This book is ideally designed for researchers, financial analysts, executives, practitioners, policymakers, academicians, and students seeking current research on contemporary risk management strategies in the financial sector.
Interaction between traditional and social media, as well as advantages and disadvantages of social networks are under consideration in the article. Special attention is paid to the work of The USA Today in Facebook, 20192020. The author has found out the most popular themes and persons discussed in Facebook feeds and explains why offline-media should build up relationships with their audiences in social networks.
The name of Sylvia Plath, an America writer and poet, is often associated with England. A significant part of her life was connected with this country.
In Russia, Plath’s oeuvre remains relatively unexplored. In addition to several articles dedicated to certain aspects of the poet's work, it is worth mentioning E. K. Gerasimova's thesis "The Artistic World of Poetry and Prose of Sylvia Plath: the End of the 50s – the Beginning of the 60s" ( 2007), which became the first attempt of a systematic analysis of the writer's work. Sylvia Plath's reception of English culture, literature and everyday life was never studied separately, while scholars limited their interest to the relationships between Plath with English literature in the person of Ted Hughes.
The object of this article is Plath’s prose, including short stories, journals, as well as letters addressed mainly to her mother and brother. The study of this topic is complicated by the fact that, if we trust the testimony of Plath’s relatives and friends, her can not be always considered a fully reliable narrator. There are many examples when she, consciously or unconsciously, being carried away by the process of artistic re-creation of the world, misleads the reader. The evidence contained in the journal entries may be diametrically opposite to the impressions contained in Sylvia Plath's letters.
Life in England, getting familiar with the British, their customs and traditions have left their mark on Plath’s creativity, images and even the language that the poet uses to create her complex and multi-layered texts. Since 1956, “English” has become inseparable from both biography and creativity of the author. The image of England is formed on the basis of personal impressions, stereotypes that existed at that time, literary sources and new media, among which a special place was occupied by cinema and advertising. This study is relevant, as it not only sheds light on some aspects of the work of Sylvia Plath, but also helps to understand what England was in the eyes of the Americans in the 50s – 60s of the previous century. Despite the non-standard perception of the world, Plath, nevertheless, projects in her oeuvre many stereotypes that existed at that time, some of which have not lost their relevance even today.
The image of England in Plath’s works is always ambivalent. On the one hand, the concept “Englishness” includes such associations as English literature, Shakespeare, English poetry. On the other hand, the country always bewildered Plath by its conservatism, snobbery, stiffness and cold. All those shades of “Englishness” are traced in Sylvia Plath’s prose, having become an integral part of her ego-text.
The paper explores the key assertion of Aristotelian “Politics” that a state is formed primarily for the good life. Aristotle’s views on the essence, purpose and the best constitution of a state are analyzed in comparison with Socrates’ and Plato’s doctrine of an ideal state. The author investigates an Aristotelian interrelation between people’s understandings of happiness and their choice of a form of government and approval of a state policy. It is demonstrated that the Aristotelian idea of a state designed for the good life entered the Western political philosophy paradigm and has exerted a determining influence on the formation of a common good notion and the concept of a welfare state. The paper concludes that the choice between “the Aristotelian state” and “the Platonic state” is not only stipulated by historical and cultural reasons, but is at the same time existential for each nation.
The images of countries in the news of Russian media about the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of popular critical geopolitics were analyzed in the article. 465 texts of the Russian media (01.01.2019 - 03.20.2020) were identified based on the keyword “coronavirus” and processed using computer linguistics. For the eastern countries (China, Iran, South Korea and Japan) and the western (USA, Italy, Spain, France), as well as for “Russia”, semantic fields were reconstructed. Based on the analysis of semantic fields, the images of countries facing a pandemic were interpreted. It turned out that they write about the east in the context of a border beyond which there is a danger of infection. The image of the eastern countries in the news about the coronavirus is consistent with the prevailing media images of the east as a distant and little-known geopolitical space. The media discourse on the pandemic in China contains people and viruses as storytelling actors, which, according to the author of the article, may indicate the preservation of the outdated strategy of “demonization” of China (as a habitat for the infection).
Western countries in the media discourse on coronavirus are lined up in a hierarchy. The United States and France receive a personified representation directly related to their political leaders. Ordinary people suffering from coronavirus disappear in the US pandemic media discourse. All media attention is focused on President Trump. The image of the United States is constructed as an image of a hegemonic country. The image of France is semantically one of the most complex and ambivalent. The image of Spain is being reconstructed through the suffering of people in a pandemic, as well as through the participation of the state in protecting citizens from the infection. The image of Italy is constructed as the image of a close, sympathetic and vulnerable country.
Russia in the discourse of Russian media at the initial stage of the pandemic is being constructed as a resisting (not infected) territory. It turns out that the geopolitical media discourse in a pandemic preserves the most typical intentions.
Presented are results of sociological study, devoted to perception of Russian history by first-year students of Volga Research Medical University (PRMU). By using questionnaire, the authors analyze knowledge level of students, some sources of formation of their perception of the past, respondents’ attitude towards personalities and events of national history. The authors’ conclusion is made that despite of basic knowledge respondents have, their historical representations seem to be fragmentary, controversial and politicized.
Comic book adaptations of classics have become more and more popular as a genre of mass
culture. No wonder, that their creators turned to such a cult author as Jane Austen. In the article, the reasons of the interest to her novel “Pride and Prejudice” by the mass culture, as well as by Butler, who wrote the script for the adaptation, are investigated. The types of the major transformations of the original are defined and the reasons of their introduction, either caused by such genre features of comics as dynamism, visual orientation, segmentation etc., or by the nature of mass literature are described. The comparative analysis of the novel and its adaptation shows that the adaptation lacks the specific style characteristic of Jane Austen’s work as the author’s commentary is reduced to its minimum. The description of everyday life, the psychological depth and plot complexity are contracted all the attention is focused on the love line, the episodes and characters not connected with Darcy — Elizabeth relationships are omitted. The portraits of the characters are drawn in the grotesque “Marvel” production style, which simplifies the characters making them “flat”. However, the adaptations of literary classics become a good way of popularization of the “high-brow” literature: the readers’ responses show that more than 60 % of them felt urged to read the novel after getting acquainted with its adaptation.
The chapter considers Marshall McLuhan‘s literary criticism: his dissertation «The Classical Trivium: The Place of Thomas Nashe in the Learning of His Time», publications devoted to A Tennyson and E. Pound. The author sets a goal to estimate the impact of the Canadian scholar into literary studies and investigate his research method. M. McLuhan‘s interdisciplinary and intermedial approach to analyzing literary texts grants scholars unlimited freedom in formulating hypotheses without their further approval or denial as well as the right to challenge canons. Bold ideas, vivid metaphors, daring comparisons, and unusual foreshortening are important for McLuhan‘s research. The Canadian theorist is not well recognized among literary critics, bit his methods of studying literature, media, and communications have become a basis for international projects at M. McLuhan‘ Center of Culture and Technology at Toronto Universit